Contemporary Chivalry:
The Internet & Modern Tournament Societies
Brian R. Price
A Paper for the Popular Culture Conference
April 09, 1998


The knight said, ‘Fair son, I am an old man, feeble, and I may not live much longer. And therefore this little book that [I have] made for the devotion, loyalty and ordinances of knighthood, a knight ought to have [it to] hold his order, and you should bear it with you now to the Court…and show it to all those who would be made knights….’”

      (Lull, EETS, 13)
      Translated to modern English by the author
Thus wrote Ramon Lull, the influential 13th century knight/philosopher. Ramon’s dream was to see ‘schools of chivalry’ in which the traditions of knighthood would be preserved, though the dream remained, as with most dreams, unfulfilled. If Ramon were somehow transported here from his meager cell in 13th century Spain, he would at first find the institution of knighthood all but extinct; the social structure of feudalism as he knew it long since gone. Given the war and violence of what we call the Middle Ages, this is not necessarily a bad thing. But today only one knightly order survives from Ramon’s time--the Knights of St. John or Hospitillars (though various Masonic sectors might well dispute the point). Ramon would have to search carefully to find these Knights of Saint John, however, though in conducting his search he would also locate the venerable knights of the Order of the Garter, the Golden Fleece or a perhaps one of the other small ‘curial’ orders such as the Knights of Malta. Though virtuous, Ramon would be hard-pressed to recognize them as knights. They don’t tourney, joust, or fight; they have no armour; most don’t serve a liege. What it means to be a knight has changed dramatically as the social institution collapsed, replaced by the officers’ or gentlemans’ code of conduct.

I think a sadness would creep into Ramon’s eyes, for it is evident in reading his work that even as he retired from knighthood to take up the life of a cleric, the essence of the chivalric ideal was his passion. It was his wish to see the institution of Knighthood flourish and grow, defending the Church and the masses with virtue and charity. Ramon clearly saw the power of chivalry as something that could improve the quality of men’s character, and through this led their immortal salvation. (Keen, 9)

But if Ramon were to hook up to the Internet through the World Wide Web, conducting even a rudimentary search under ‘Knight’, or ‘Knighthood’, or ‘Chivalry’, (In English--not his original Catalan), he would not first find any of these noble institutions, but would probably be guided to a homepage of a living, breathing knightly community, a modern tournament company. These bands of ‘knights’, hybrids between the tournament society of the 14th and 15th centuries, historical re-enactors and martial artists, strive to improve the quality of their members by martial tests of prowess and skill through philosophic debate and physical competition. (Price, 5) They would be, I think, interesting to Ramon because in a very real sense they do study and strive to understand the idea of chivalry as practice the knightly arts, applying the study as a guide to their conduct, both as a rule structure within their sport and in their lives beyond it.

The Internet has, in a very real way, breathed new life into the idea of chivalry, connecting like-minded persons together into a growing network of passionate enthusiasts that has done a miracle; it has resurrected Ramon and brought him into the new, alien world of electronic community. In their thirst to learn more of chivalry and knighthood, members of these societies have rediscovered Lull’s work. Through this network they have become aware of the writings of Geoffrey de Charny, of the Ordene de Chevalerie, of the newly translated romances that form the core of chivalric literature. And through the Internet they have rekindled debates posed by this literature, reawakening the authors of these works not in a scholarly way but through living discussions meant to accomplish what the authors themselves intended: to improve the character of those claiming to the ‘knights’ and to affect the world, ever so slightly, through their efforts.

The modern tournament companies of today are confraternal chivalric societies, twentieth-century interpretations of the chivalric myth that strive to capture the inspirational magic inherent in the chivalric idea, harnessing that essence to entertain and to educate. They are a form of popular medievalism, a yearning for a loosely grasped vision of the knightly ideal and romanticized medieval life. Yet they are comprised of amateur historians, highly skilled artisans, and professionals whose interest in the Middle Ages transcends a passing fancy, driving them to conduct research, create decorative arts, and compete in tournaments not as an escape but as a martial art, in an attempt to build both skill and character. The goal of tournament societies goes beyond the component cultures that have spawned them; they strive to build better citizens using the timeless model of an unreachable popular ideal rooted in the virtues common to knights throughout the ages.

As just one example of a community supported and bound by the emerging medium we call the Internet, the modern tournament society can serve today as a marker for the thousands of other communities that have long languished due to their narrow band of appeal.  Now they flourish as their distantly located members discover and interact with one another electronically. As the Internet grows, new standards of behavior, techniques of social interaction and governing tools will germinate, redefining the nature of relationships between the individual and what he identifies as his ‘local’ society. The impacts of these relationships on the meaning of government and society are not well understood, but they will prove fascinating and, possibly, even revolutionary.

The Role of Chivalric Patrons in Evolving Knightly Virtue
As Maurice Keen has observed, three groups of often-competing interests shaped and were shaped by visions of the chivalric ideal. The warriors themselves, members of a growing international caste; the medieval church; and the demands of the court, as articulated through both prince and lady. Often competing with one another for the knight’s devotion, each strove to mold the image of the ideal knight for purposes both pure and political. The ideals as we know them represent various syntheses of these influences. (Keen, 17)

The medieval church presented the most obvious source for ideological articulation. The tripartite image of clergy, knight and peasant was a pervasive one. The church, driven by a dual desire to consolidate ecclesiastical power and to improve the lives of those souls charged to its care, was anxious to enlist the warrior’s support in their objectives. The Peace of God, the Crusades, the infusion of humility, piety and Christian duties to the  ‘knightly’ virtues, and the great Knightly orders led by the Templars, Hospitallars, and Teutonic Knights were just a few of the more visible results of this multi-century long campaign. (Keen, 44-63)

The knights themselves were probably the strongest influence governing their self image and role in society, since the fraternal nature of their caste tied them together in a bond that sometimes proved stronger than the feudal or religious. (Kennedy, 70) From their traditions came the laws of war, the idea concerning proper conduct for an officer, conventions governing the role of combatants and non-combatants in warfare. They glorified their station through tournaments, jousts, hunts and warfare, building the duty of their station solidly on the principles of feudal obligation. Knights such as Ramon Lull, Geoffrey de Charny and Wolfram von Eshenbach mused about idyllic chivalry in romance and prose, influencing generations of knights who followed.

But it was the influence of court that brought the ideals of chivalry to their full strength. I say this because it is the literature and images produced by this class of advocate that have survived through the ages and proven a powerful motivator, even today, long after the social institutions of knighthood of perished. The patronage and powerful influence of ladies at court drove much of the romantic literature (Keen, 21-2), from which most surviving Arthurian tales are derived. Marie de Champagne, Eleanor of Aquitaine, Phillipa of Hainault stand as powerful patronesses of the arts, the force of their beliefs still echoing in the literature of Chrètien de Troyes, Andreas Cappallanus, the annals of Froissart.

Although each of the three influences provided part of the intellectual framework in which the concept of knighthood and the chivalric ideals developed during the whole of the Middle Ages, it was the patronage of powerful, visionary princes that drove the process. Princes, noblemen and the occasional knight seized upon the potential strength of the chivalric idea, casting it anew for their own ends. Through their efforts the concept of the ideal knight evolved during the ages to accommodate new social realities. The courts of Karoly I (Hungry), Jean Le Bon, King René d’Anjou, Edwards I & III are just a few such noteworthies (Loomis, 114)

Patrons used several key tools to articulate and distribute their beliefs. First, through their own knightly reputations--their renown--and their actions, tales of their strength and virtue gave weight to their efforts and to their words. Second, these patrons could, using their own resources, produce events--such as tournaments, festivals and ceremonies--to provide stages upon which they could encourage and reinforce the desired behavior. Third, through their patronage knights they held in high esteem could be made more visible through recognition and high office. Fourth, they could afford to patronize the arts, encouraging heralds, diplomats, poets and clergy to record and distribute deeds that reinforced their objectives. Finally, they could form bands of knightly societies designed to serve dually as exemplars and an internally governing body, both aimed at improving the quality of knights in their court by binding the effort of single individuals into more easily visible and renowned groups.

In each case, the patron recast the chivalric base into the ‘realities’ of the day by producing new codes of conduct through stories, song, gestures, recognition, largesse and his own word and deed. I believe that it was this projection that provided much of the energy behind the evolution of the chivalric idea. The history of chivalry is one of a continual harkening back to a mythical ‘ideal’ time when knights acted like knights, an outcry for the knights of ‘today’ to reach deep into their hearts and perform as knights ‘ought,’ in accord with the legendary behavior of those who went before. Famous knights such as William Marshal, Gottfried de Bouillon and the Black Prince served both as exemplars in their day, earning for themselves places in the chivalric pantheon following Joshua, Alexander, Charlemagne and the mythical Arthur.

To a lesser degree, regional knights provided the local example that others followed. If these knights could be reached by the visionary through renown and example, then the conduct of many others could be effected. It is for this reason that the knightly order and the tournament companies were founded, as shown by this excerpt from the Charter of the Order of the Golden Fleece:

Then hear, princes and princesses, lords, ladies, and damsels, knights and squires, the Very High, Very Excellent, and Very Puissant Prince, My Lord the Duke of Burgundy, Count of  Flanders and Artois, Count Palantine of Burgundy, Count of Namur, etc., makes known to all  that for the reverence of God and the maintenance of our Christian Faith, and to honour and exalt the noble order of knighthood, and also for the following three reasons: first to do honor to knights, who for their high and noble deeds are worthy of being recommended; second, so that those who are at present still capable and strong of body and do each day the deeds  pertaining to chivalry shall have cause to continue from good to better; and third, so that those knights and gentlemen who shall see worn the order which shall be mentioned below should honour those who wear it, and be encouraged to employ themselves on such customs, that by their valiance they may acquire good renown, and deserve in their time to be chosen to bear the said order; my said lord the Duke has today undertaken and founded an order which  is called "the Golden Fleece", in which, with and besides the person of my lord the Duke himself, are twenty-four knights, gentlemen of name and arms without reproach, born and procreated in legal marriage, of whom a declaration of the names and surnames follows.…
Some of these groups became famous and enduring, as in the case of the Golden Fleece. Others were strong during their day, such as the French Order of the Star, only to perish under the assault of political and military reality. Most orders were small groups of local knights under a regional prince, bound together for political, military, and ideological reasons. A few, as in the case of the German tournament societies of the late 14th century, were groups of equally-ranking knights serving a quasi-commercial purpose echoing the corporate efforts of William the Marshal who used the tournament both to build renown and as a financial enterprise.

The nature of these societies was to echo their leaders’ ideals, using Arthur’s Round Table and the idea of Charlemagne’s Twelve Paladins as a mythical yet powerful precedent. This precedent gave the patrons’ ideas legitimacy, lodging them neatly into a long history of powerful exemplars well known to the knightly audience. The mechanism is no different today.

The Role of the Tournament in Chivalric Exercise & Romantic Chivalry
Displays of virtue--whether martial or courtly--have long been a cornerstone of the chivalric image. Renown, the ‘coin of victory’ measuring a knights worth in medieval society, was built on the demonstration of prowess, courage, loyalty, piety, humility, largesse, and fidelity. Interpretations of these virtues changed over time, but the virtues themselves all formed the core of the chivalric idea as early as the seventh century and as late as the sixteenth. They remain intact today, still attached to the knightly image, twelve centuries later.

Knights, particularly the richest ones who held substantial fortunes in land and income, sometimes strove to build their renown, and their self-image, in lavish displays of knightly virtue. During times of peace, the joust, tournament and festival provided this mechanism. The form of the hastilude changed over the centuries, but the essence remained true; to provide a stage upon which knightly deeds could be done and renown won, both in the eyes of knightly peers and the noble ladies present in the gallery.

From the earliest times audiences at martial feats of arms proved an indispensable part of the chivalric infrastructure. Galleries, comprised of noblemen, ladies and heralds, served to record the deeds of the combatants in the common memory, recording some deeds in song and story. Renown came as stories of the knights exploits spread throughout the members of the chivalric class, and with the renown came social prestige, power, and influence. Witness the careers of three famous knights--William Marshal, Ulrich von Lichtenstein, and Geoffrey de Charny--knights separated by three centuries. Each rose from meager origins, built their reputations in tournaments, and as a result of their fame won substantial advancement in the socio-political structures of their time.

Literature and the Tournament
Princely patrons often used literary references as the basis for themed tournaments in the form of Round Tables or Pas d’Armes. The 13th century romance prose Lancelot proved particularly useful in this respect, engendering several feats of arms modelled upon it. Just as modern films sometimes use ‘literature’ modelled into a more accessible modernized format, so did the medieval chivalric patrons draw from literature for their stages. Rather than producing a film, they produced a tournament. Both are designed to entertain, and in some cases, to educate or perform a political purpose.

To quote Dr. Keen, “Tournaments were referred to as ‘ecoles de prouesse’, or schools where a whole range of values were exercised and displayed.” (Keen, 99). An example of this can be found in Huon de Méry’s ‘Tournament de l’Antechrist’ (c. 1230), where defenders in a grand pas d’armes took up the identities of various virtues: Chastity, Justice, Mercy, Prowess, Courtesy, ‘Debonnairite’, riding with the heavenly host to act as the group against which challengers would face during the course of the tournament. (Keen, 98-9).
Using such stages, princes could at once project a desirable image to improve their political or moral legitimacy and encourage particular forms of knightly virtue, while simultaneously entertaining both the combatants and the gallery.

There is no question that chivalric literature played a substantial role in the tournament. Juliet Barker, writing in the seminal work on medieval ‘hastiludes’, cites a number of methods through which literary settings were adapted to feats of arms.

The presence of an unknown knight errant, fighting incognito, has long been a standard artifice of knightly literature. Such errantry encapsulated the Christian duties, warrior virtues, and courtly behavior expected of a knight. Travelling abroad in foreign lands or disguised in his home territory, the image of a solitary knight seeking adventures for the dual purpose of gaining renown and righting wrongs echoes throughout the genre.

In the tournament, this technique found frequent use. The famous Ulrich von Lichtenstein, for example, travelled abroad for more than three years before his knighting. Theobald de Verdun and two others, all wealthy, fought incognito at the Dunstable tournament of 1309. Even Edward III fought ‘incognito’ on a number of occasions, though it is difficult to imagine anyone being fooled by the play. The recorded instances go on and on.

Scenarios for different forms of hastilude were often drawn directly from literary precedents. In this the 14th century romances Percefrost and Lancelot proved particularly influential. The monumental tournament held in 1278 at Le Hem is perhaps a moderately early and famous example of such a spectacle. Many of these scenarios wove elaborate props into the combat to set the stage, such as the lions and great wheeled ship recorded at the Le Hem tourney.

Role-playing was a common component of tourneying from the mid-13th century. Combatants assumed--for the day or longer to fulfill a martial vow--the roles of various Arthurian characters. Ulrich von Lichtenstein conducted perhaps the earliest such event in 1240. The records through the fifteenth century are ripe with examples; Round Tables held by Edward I in 1254 and again in 1284, by Geoffrey Mortimer (1328), by Edward III in 1344 and again in 1348. Many more are recorded only in passing.

It is uncertain to what degree these ‘round table’ events were scripted and to what extent they involved competitive fighting. What is certain is that they were employed by chivalric patrons to entertain and to educate, extending something of the chivalric legend to knights of their own day. By competing in these themed tourneys or in feats of arms that drew elements from the legitimizing myth-history of chivalric literature, knights were able to associate themselves with the knights of history and legend. A stage was created, much in the way a modern film sets the tone and framework, upon which opportunities for chivalric expression were found. Because the presence of a gallery was crucial to the success of these events--all of them appear to have been conducted in front of spectators--renown and glory were important components of the exercise.

Tournament Companies
Orders of chivalry were another important tool for the development of chivalric ideas during the Middle Ages. Religious orders, such as the Templars and Hospitallars, were founded originally on the model provided by the monasteries. Modern tournament companies take little from these orders because they are secular groups of chivalric enthusiasts, not tied to any particular religious institution. Similar groups of secularly-organized knights existed in the Middle Ages, knights who were motivated by the concerns of the a more worldly nature; it is the example of these societies that drive the modern companies.

D’Arcy Boulton has observed three types of secular knightly organization:

‘Curial’ orders created by great princes have two objectives. First, political legitimization for the Crown through the creation of princely renown and association with the chivalric mythos. Second, the improvement of the knightly caste through a governing structure and a reward of glory and renown for knights who act as exemplars in the value structure intended by the governing prince. The Orders of the Garter, Star, Golden Fleece, Croissant and the Order of the Band are examples of such ‘curial’ or ‘monarchical’ orders.

‘Votive’ orders, according to Dr. Boulton, are based around a single vow or chivalric objective. By their nature temporary, such orders were framed in the tradition of the knight errant to provide a framework and support for feats of errancy. Vows made over a peacock or by individual knights to conduct some measure of knightly feat of arms in a foreign country would make their promise, and others would, in the spirit of the moment, echo the vow and accept it. {examples here}

‘Confraternal’ orders were societies were more permanent organizations, groups of knights bound together for a common purpose under a governing charter. All such groups possessed such a charter, governed themselves under it (in addition to all other laws), sometimes collected dues, and held regular chapters at which business of the company was dealt with and exploits--both good and bad--heard. Knights of various noble ranking were equal in rank and status within the society itself. Sometimes these knightly societies sponsored tournaments, as with the German tournament societies of the 14th and 15th centuries, while others created books of deeds recording the exploits of their members.

Historical Re-enactments
Playful re-enactment has been a key component of chivalric sports since the early twelfth century. Phillip de Navarre recorded the first ‘tournament re-enactment’ drawn directly from an ‘ancient’ literary history c. 1230:

The festivities of this knighting were the greatest and longest ever known overseas. There was much giving and spending, much tourneying and re-enacting the adventures of Britain and of the Round Table, and all manner of games.
(Memoires, 1218-1243, Trans. Elspeth Kennedy)
Such play continued through the end of the 15th century, serving not as the venerable Dr. Huizinga observed as a ‘denigration of the knightly station’ but as a strengthening tool designed to focus the attention of knights on an earlier, idealized time of chivalry through which knights would hopefully take some measure of inspiration. Even as the Middle Ages drew to a close and the knight’s social station crashed on the rocks of a rising enterprise culture, the strength of such re-enactments continued even into the 16th, 17th and 18th centuries.

During the 19th century a full-fledged rediscovery of medievalism flowered  in the neo-Gothic, Arts & Crafts and Pre-Raphallite movements. The names of talented artists and amateur historians who led the movement still echo today--William Morris, Sir Walter Scott, A.W.N. Pugin. This flirtation with medieval ideas contributed a lasting boost to the art and literature of medieval Europe, and it even spawned at least one tournament re-enactment ‘as it might have been’ with the Englinton tournament of 1839. The neo-medieval movement lasted the whole of the nineteenth century, extending into the early 20th, where it continued to influence the ideal of a well-behaved, proper gentleman.

Twentieth-century re-enactments here in the United States, England and Europe deal largely with historical events of local or national significance. In England groups recreate elements of life from the Roman Occupation through the Congress of Vienna, each group characterized by a narrow historical period of interest. Wars and military units seems to be the richest fodder for such re-enactments; here in America the largest re-enactments have been those of the Civil War regiments, followed by those of the Revolutionary War. Most of these groups pride themselves on near-absolute accuracy, providing a valuable component of living history that communicates context through the strength of a complete, interactive visual picture.

Alongside this movement rose another popular culture driven not by history but by fantasy following in the footsteps of J.R.R. Tolkien. In the 1950s & 60s, fantasy literature began to find a market in England and in the United States. During the middle and late 1970s, the literature of fantasy and science fiction skyrocketed in popularity, etching a permanent niche into popular culture. As with Tolkien, this early literature built loosely upon the culture of medieval Europe, adding magic and mythical races to the mix. During the1970s and 80s, this interest in fantasy culture began to grow beyond the constraints of literature through the use of Role-Playing Games (RPGs), where the famous Dungeons & Dragons catapulted a new style of popular entertainment onto the cultural stage.

The Society for Creative Anachronism
In 1966, a curious hybrid between the two movements germinated in Berkeley, California. A small band of fantasy/science fiction enthusiasts held a party in the backyard of Ms. Diana Paxton (now a well-known fantasy author), and out of that single party grew a national organization of more than 40,000 romanticized medievalists--the Society for Creative Anachronism (SCA).

What set the SCA apart from other re-enactment societies was a very wide historical range (600 - 1600) plus a hierarchical social structure roughly approximating medieval nobility, built upon performance in highly competitive tournaments. Early SCA efforts to refine this combat style drove the direction of a new martial art not only within the United States but in Canada, England, Germany, Sweden, Australia, New Zealand, Japan, Korea and even Mexico and South Africa.

In SCA combat, rattan weapons approximate authentic medieval swords, maces, and poleweapons, similar to ash or whalebone weapons used for practice and in the medieval béhourd. Armour that ranges from highly authentic reproductions to modern sporting equipment is adopted according to financial ability and historical awareness. Safety standards are set by the umbrella corporation that provides insurance and a common rules standard. The combat is conducted full-contact, full-speed under the auspices of safety officers who enforce the rules and inspect weapons and armour for safety. SCA tournaments can usually be found in most major US cities during the summer season, ranging from small events where two or three combatants fight ‘round-robin’ to a ‘Crown’ tournament where a hundred or more fight in a single- or double-elimination style tournament to see who will, at the end of the day, by virtue of their prowess be named Crown Prince.

Broken down into fourteen geographical regions, SCA ‘kingdoms’ are populated by gentles with divergent interests in popular medievalism. Some gather merely to socialize; no small number of them arrive at the organization as social misfits and learn valuable social skills--the SCA has been called  “the world’s finest ‘geek rehabilitator.’”  Some are introduced to the arts and a few of these develop into world-class artisans. Some delve into the combat as a martial art and others into the organization of events. ‘Kingdom’ groups sometimes meet in mock ‘wars’ at their borders, where the regional subcultures mix and compete. Some of these ‘wars’ are quite large, as with the Pennsic War held each August in Slippery Rock, PA, where over ten thousand attend annually.

The SCA recognizes superior performance on the tournament field through ‘knighthoods’ bestowed by the current King with the agreement of the knights in the candidate’s region. Similar recognition is bestowed for arts and service, respectively, so that equality of rank can be achieved by those not moved by the martial arts.

Historical accuracy is not the SCA’s strong suit. The essence of the culture is such that its casual attitude towards historical accuracy removes it from consideration as a re-enactment group, although the tournament culture that has developed around the martial art stands as a kind of re-enactment of its own, in that the reputations of combatants are made or lost in a setting that would not be unfamiliar to a medieval spectator.

One thing that the SCA does recreate well is medieval politics. Given a social structure mirroring that of medieval Britain, political struggles and factions have driven off a number of ‘splinter’ groups, all roughly similar to the SCA save for their smaller size and the fact that some of them fight with steel rather than with rattan weapons.

Tournament Companies
Spawned initially within the Society for Creative Anachronism, the idea of a tournament company formed under the stresses expected of so divergent a group. Some members desired a shift in emphasis away from the ‘sport’ that had grown up around SCA tournaments in favor of a renewed interest in both historical accuracy and an emphasis on the chivalric ideal. Research conducted by founding members into the history of medieval tournaments, knighthood and the chivalric ideal connected with the rich corpus of materials produced by todays medieval scholars such as Dr. Maurice Keen, Professor Sydney Anglo, Juliet Barker and Elspeth Kennedy.

The first of the tournament companies was the Company of Saint George, founded in Los Angeles in 1990. Members of this first company strove to enrich their knowledge of the medieval predecessors by devouring every available (translated) chronicle, history, and secondary study, in the process rediscovering two key tools that have proven the tournament companies most potent methods of communicating and reinforcing the interpretation of the chivalric ideal: the knightly confraternity and the pas d’armes.

The Company of Saint George is a knightly society existing within the social framework of the SCA, yet standing apart in its emphasis on historical accuracy and chivalric virtues. It is a mix of the princely order and the tournament society of 14th - 15th century Germany, a group of gentles bound by a core value set summarized in the Great Charter of the Company:

The Great Charter of the Company of Saint George

May all know by this present charter that we the Company of Saint George do swear and
declare before God our faithful obeisance unto the noble art of arms.

Whereas we declare that the true joy of combat proceeds not from the base spirit of pride,
nor of vainly striving one against the other, but is only from honor.

We hereby proclaim that with God’s grace this company shall endeavor to increase, advance, and uphold the banner of chivalry as it was practiced by our noble ancestors, and
swearing to do the same do we hereby ordain these maintenances:

That every companion shall strive through speech, manner and appearance to present forth
the very mirror and example of a gentleman of Christendom.

     Also that every companion shall revere such goodly arts and mysteries of days past
     omitting neither their practice nor their patronage.

     Also that every companion shall take such care of his arms, harness, raiment and all
     appearances that be in accordance with his conviction that neither shame nor stain
     shall befall the company. And that he shall accept such guidance and counsel in
     regards to the above as seems meet unto the same.

     Also that every companion shall endeavor to better himself in his use of arms and in
     all pursuits that belong to a gentleman.

     Also that any who may become a companion may be in some way known to the
     company that his merits and advantages and be known to all.

Also that the companions shall gather no less than once per year for a special feast, with
their consorts, to address the company and to administer to the same, and to share
agreement together, by custom being the feasts of St. Crispen and St. George.

And also that companions be known by a red garter worn below the left knee, bearing the motto, “Honestas Supra Omnia” (Honor above all), and by a black cloak bearing a badge of the same garter worn upon the left breast.

May God serve us in our endeavor. Done this Feast of Epiphany in the year Nineteen Hundred and Ninety of our salvation at Urbs Angellorum.

Renown is the key concept upon which the Company is bound. If a combatant can act in a way that engenders the respect of the gallery, and his (or her) peers, then a just reputation will follow. Members of the company are charged to improve their renown by seeking martial encounters that will grow them as combatants and as peers within the organization, while providing service beyond the Company and SCA to improve the world at large, championing justice as a general character trait. It is the idea of the knight as champion of justice, espoused by Charny in the 14th century, that fits well into any ‘modern’ context.

To build renown of individuals and of the Company as a whole a range of tools are used. Regular chapters are held to plan tournaments and vote on new members. Roundtable discussions are held with combatants of all ages to examine the chivalric virtues in detail both in a historical and in modern contexts. A Knight of Honor is elected to investigate any conduct problems brought against companions. A Book of Deeds is kept to record the exploits of the members or others who come to the companion’s attention. Tokens of etched bronze are distributed by Companions to gentles whose conduct mirrors what the Company believes to be right. Companions are available to talk to school children about the Middle Ages and knighthood, augmenting local coursework with a living history component.

The pas d’armes is perhaps the most visible and effective tool in the Company’s arsenal. The pas d’armes is a kind of challenge tournament popular during the 14th and 15th centuries, where a team of combatants--in this case the Companions of Saint George--declare their intention to hold a place à plaisance for the entertainment of the gallery and for the joi de combat of the combatants themselves.  The Company of Saint George rediscovered the pas d’armes format and refined it for use in the SCA and other re-enactment groups; it proved an immensely successful format for the encouragement of knightly virtue because it provided a stage upon which conduct mattered more than the ‘objective’ outcome of a modern single- or double-elimination tree. The ‘tone’ of the pas d’armes emphasized less of a modern sport and more a set of very hard-pressed, but friendly set of competitive fights and interesting challenges. And it brought the gallery back into the tournament proper, enabling them to choose particular challenges the ladies wanted to see or to showcase combatants they felt had inspired them with prowess and courtesy.

The Company published their research and ‘how to’ articles detailing their experiences with organizing such a company in the print journal Chronique--the Journal of Chivalry, and by 1994 there were four similar companies.

That the pas d’armes, chivalric roundtables and confraternal organization proved effective tools came as an exhilarating set of developments. The founders of the Company forsaw some measure of success with the venture, because all of these tools had been well-proven during the 13th - 15th centuries. Given that the core virtues had remained unchanged--in essence if not in interpretation--the model still proved powerful and compelling. What we did not predict was the startling impact of a decidedly modern tool--the Internet.

Tournament Companies on the Web
Since the primary activity of the Company is the tournament as a form of martial art, it cannot be done over the web. However, the Company’s ability to project its example and to provide instruction and advice to others--both inside and outside of the Society for Creative Anachronism--has been multiplied many times through the use of the Net.

I started the Knighthood, Chivalry & Tournaments Resource Library (KCT for short) website in 1993. It was intended as another distribution point for some of the St. George ideas as well as a nexus point for other, future companies yet to be founded. It has grown from those meager days to encompass nearly a thousand pages of translations, governing documents, tournament formats, how-to segments, essays, chat, forum discussions, and historical references for those interested in the medieval knight, not simply re-enactors.

Using various Internet tools, the Company of Saint George has been able to foster the development of more than fifteen other Companies. The Internet has proven immensely valuable in inter-company communications, in distributing written templates and ‘how-to’ instructions, and even in one of the Company’s primary tools--the holding of philosophic roundtables.

Using Java-based chat software, members are able to communicate real-time in moderated roundtable discussions. In the context of tournament companies this ranges from how to host a pas d’armes or create a 14th century bascinet to discussions on chivalric virtue. These discussions can be saved in a file and dressed up for display on the web, preserving the discussion for use by others not able to attend. Email lists help members to take subdiscussions offline into more detailed talks, though these are generally not preserved for the benefit of others.

The Internet as Communications Tool
What is the Internet? At the most basic physical level the Internet is a collection of computers networked together through common connection protocols. Both public and private subnetworks are integrated into the system through common standards; chiefly though not exclusively through the TCP/IP protocol. ‘Client’ machines request information from established ‘Servers’, machines that deliver information upon validated request. Twelve-digit numeric IP (Internet Protocol) addresses are maintained for each member subnet on the system, catalogued by large databases maintained by Network Solutions, Inc., until recently under contract for the National Science Foundation.

To access the Internet, a user logs into to a member subnet with an account maintained locally on that subnet. Internet Service Providers (ISPs) are examples of very large subnets that maintain permanent account management for subscribers. Once logged in to a member subnet, the user can access the resources on the Net using a variety of tools appropriate to the various subsystems; the Web, newsgroups, or email, all by pointing to a particular location and using the software to access the system. Recent figures indicate that there are more than twenty million users on the Internet, judging by the numbers of accounts at various ISPs.

The Web
Arguably the most important resource on the Internet, the World Wide Web has been in existence for nearly ten years. Until the early Mosaic browser incorporated graphics into the readers’ capability, however, the older “lynx” readers (still common at Universities) could only browse text files. There is common agreement within the Internet community that graphics formed the bridge that connected what was predominantly an ‘expert’ library-oriented medium into a platform for near-mass consumption.

‘Websites’ are actually collections of hypertext pages, each one containing pointers to other pages and graphic components. Recent developments in DHTML and database-driven page generation techniques have raised the bar for compelling site content, since each page no longer exists as a static body of precoded text but can now be scripted to deliver targeted information to the user based on demographic or usage data. Continued development in this area will serve to create a barrier between the small ‘hobby’ publisher and the more entertainment-conscious and technology-enabled corporations; the days of the web as a completely organic phenomenon are probably over, though one can argue whether this is a good or a bad thing.

One important technological aspect of the WWW is that unlike the old BBS connections popular until a few years ago, connections to the web are stateless; that is, a request is made by the client browser and passed along to the site via an IP pointer. The requested material is returned if found, and the connection dropped. This makes it difficult to create full-fledged applications because an application, by definition, stores and processes data. With Sun Microsystems introduction of the platform independent Java development language, applications are no longer run on the server but on the client. Applications may be downloaded from the page with the usual request and executed on the target machine. Components of these applications may then remain on the server, interacting with the newly downloaded software to form a fully-featured client-server application. Regardless of the outcome of the Microsoft-Sun Micro battle concerning the future of Java, integrated applications coded in some form of Java or Java-like language will probably continue the revolution of the Web, but because of the technical prowess needed to create such applications, a further distinction between the ‘hobby’ and the ‘professional’ sites will probably continue to evolve as the technical capabilities improve.

Classifications of Websites
‘Home’ Pages
Websites come in four usual varieties. The first are ‘home’ pages maintained by individuals or small organizations. Although sources disagree concerning the numbers, the most recent and likely reliable figures I have seen come from the industry journal Internet Week, where it was estimated that there were more than seven million home pages on the web. Home pages are used as business or calling cards to give a quick background on the people or enterprises in question. Generally these sites are of a very uneven in their quality in terms of both content and presentation, but hidden in the haystack of homepages are needles of real quality; in Arthuriana and every other imaginable topic.

The web has extended the concept of ‘desktop’ publishing to something like ‘worldview’ publishing; the only problem is that in order to be seen by the world a site must first be found. On that basis the web has been popularly tagged the ‘world wide morass’. For this reason the largest of the search engines--Yahoo, Excite, Infoseek and Lycos (in that order)--have made successful business starts as key nexus points. Recent efforts by those companies to extend their business beyond the nexus echelon where people do a quick search and leave have not yet been proven successful, though real dollars have been spent by all four in an attempt to evolve their service offerings.

‘Commerce Sites’
Commerce sites are those sponsored as commercial ventures by business entities in manufacturing, retail, service and entertainment sectors, designed to attract customers and use the Web medium to generate revenue. Whole new businesses--such as or Travelocity--have been created based on the capabilities of the Web to deliver database-driven information and credit-card authorized sales. Entertainment and media companies are currently developing new applications on the web, currently leveraging non-web properties in film, music, or video games. Over time new web-based properties will doubtless be created, most probably through the efforts of the entertainment giants.

‘Informational’ sites
Those sites I have classed as ‘Informational’ are those, like KCT or xxx {Arthurian site}, where repositories of information are kept or catalogued. Usually these sites are classed broadly according to topical interest, contrasted with the usual home pages where many different types of interest information might be found in the same site. Informational sites might sometimes have commerce offerings, though these are usually not the main focus of the site.

One barrier to ‘Informational’ and some content-based commerce sites (especially those leveraging entertainment properties such as Disney, Warner Brothers or even Adobe Systems [who hold patents on Postcript font/page description files]) is the massive problem posed by the ease of content piracy. Using common tools any component of any publicly available (and some firewall-protected) web sites, text or graphics can be easily copied and recast. Traditional copyrights and intellectual property law developed to fit the print and broadcast media sectors, but as yet such laws and controlling technologies are still in a stage of infancy. As technology and legal precedent race to extend copyright protection to the Internet, most of the enforcement comes not from compulsory tools or laws but from organic ‘Netiquette’. In the excitement to explore the new medium, authors’ and artists’ rights have frequently been violated; because of the ease-of-theft and the lack of royalty mechanisms, authors and content providers have been reticent to place their better material on the Net. Once these mechanisms are commonly accepted and in place, another explosion of content will find its way to the content- or informationally-based site.

‘Nexus Sites’
Nexus sites (not to be confused with the legal research tool of the same name) are basically compilations of links to resources not listed in host site itself. These ‘nexus’ collections build by popularity around a given topic. ‘Topical’ nexus sites are those created by passionate advocates of a given topic, frequently they contain reviews or some kind of rating system, possibly as simple as editorial comments about each site that can speed informational searches.

‘General’ nexus sites are the search-engines everyone is familiar with as starting places. Each of the general nexus sites has particular strengths useful for research. Yahoo!, the largest of the sites, offers information with a convenient classification system. Finding the largest sites on Yahoo! is thus relatively easy. Excite! is the next largest nexus, offering a different classification system. Infoseek, arguably the third-largest of the informational sites, uses a different search algorithm and for some reason returns a different set of sites, unclassified but rich in diversity. Finding obscure references is easiest on Infoseek. One recommended search tip is to use Yahoo! or Excite! to find the key nexus sites in a given field, then use the topical nexus sites to extend the search in a narrower fashion.

Adding Community (identity, character)
Through the use of Java and other Internet community based tools, informational, nexus and commerce sites can become community-based ‘affinity’ centers. Becoming an affinity ‘center’ is the key to catapulting a site from obscurity to prosperity, whether the intent is commercial or informational. Community based ‘affinity’ sites draw like-minded users together through the emerging technology medium and provide tools for them to communicate, evaluate, and to some extent govern a fledgling affinity-community.

An Internet community offers the user some form of ‘identity’, be it an email address; a nickname, or a fabricated persona in the form of a ‘character’. It doesn’t matter whether the ‘theme’ of the community is real or imagined. There is as much community around the largest fantasy-role playing games such as Ultima Online or The Realm as there is on the NASA chat forums or the Arthuriana mailing list.

Essential Anonymity
An important characteristic of Internet identity is that the online persona may bear little surface resemblance to the real person at the other end of the keyboard in terms of name, skill, race or even gender. In the context of our discussion I have termed this the ‘black knight’ syndrome, since the ‘essential anonymity’ of Internet communities dictates certain barriers in terms of evaluating the veracity of information received from the various actors within a given community.

Community Technologies and Tools
By far and away the most popular community-enabling tool is electronic mail, Email for short. The primary networking tool of all Net users, email is now available not only to Internet account holders of various sorts but free through a variety of services.

Email allows personal, usually unencrypted communication between two or more users. In a community sense mail is most often used to continue a dialog formed within public spaces, serving as a personal messaging service. Once contact with a desired party is established in the public forum of the newsgroup, email list, web forum, a quasi-private flow of information is available. New technologies will eventually provide for public- and private key encryption that can provide an additional layer of security.

Although security is a concern on the Net, so-called ‘Spam’ is perhaps a larger problem. Thousands of pyramid schemers, get-rich-quick artists, and outright cons can purchase massive lists of email addresses for a few hundred dollars, sending unwanted marketing messages to millions of users through dummy addresses. The result is a clogging of the email system with a high percentage of garbage mail that reduces the appeal of email because users must either delete the unwanted messages or try to enable filtering to reduce the incoming trash, risking the accidental deletion of a critical message. ISPs struggle with reducing spam through the same techniques and through various IP address banishment lists and semi-sophisticated screening software. Various legislatures are considering legislation in an attempt to regulate ‘spam’, but the techniques to be used in such regulation remain undefined. The future on this issue remains unclear.

Mailing Lists
Lists of email accounts can be managed to deliver mail to a select group of recipients. Short lists of interested users can be copied on a themed message from the personal address book, now available on all major Windows platforms. Powerful UNIX tools such as MajorDomo can provide sophisiticated maillist management for larger lists, allowing users to subscribe, post to a moderated or unmoderated list. Arthurnet is one such list.

Moderated discussions filter messages through a central point to reduce the ‘Spam’ and to insure that postings to the list fall into the topics of discussion. Unmoderated lists allow anyone to post. While this is lower maintenance and certainly more organic, it does tend to allow commercial messages and off-topic postings.

Email list discussions tend to be a series of postings and answers grouped loosely into discussion ‘threads’. These threads are sometimes archived for future reference, but usually they are not. When a ‘thread’ digresses to a point where it interests only a couple of individuals or the content might prove offensive to the list as a whole, the usual practice is to continue the discussion ‘offline’, meaning through private email.

Flames are negative ‘posts’ or messages relating to a specific posting or Net persona. Flames can be public or private. Because of the ‘black knight’ essential anonymity  of the Net, such flames can often be far more abusive and aggressive than would be practiced if the user’s real identity were known. Internet communities have long been dealing with ‘flames’ through peer pressure and simple banishment tools.

As a community-management tool, email lists are extremely useful in that they can operate without a predefined ‘space’ or website. Community members conduct all communications in the open, filtered in a moderated list (which taxes the moderator) or unfiltered in a open list (which opens the door for inappropriate material). The great benefit to such lists is that they can focus clearly on a single set of issues, spawning new lists when existing discussions become too cumbersome. Users can subscribe to lists according to affinity interest; this flexibility provides for an extremely organic development structure to the millions of legitimate email lists functioning in academia, business, and in affinity-communities.

Non-web based forums, Newsgroups exist for nearly every imaginable topic. Running a newsgroup, however, requires a dedicated  server, so most reside on University-sponsored machines. Because software is needed to access a newsgroup, acceptance of it as a technology with the general public has been very slow. Web-based forums seem to be growing at a far faster pace, though Newsgroups will likely continue for some time.

Web-based Forums
Web-based forums work exactly as email lists, except that instead of receiving posts to the email box, they are instead written to a publicly available web page. The advantage in such forums are that the desired threads are available for perusal via the WWW at anytime, whereas with unarchived lists you receive only the mail since the user subscribed. Users can of course peruse archives if they exist, but there is a usage barrier to such perusal as most people don’t seem to know how to access such an archive.

For the purposes of community, the web-based forum requires more direct intervention on the part of the administrator/moderator. On most forums not protected by a membership barrier of some kind, discussions wander far afield and outright ‘flame-wars’ damage the credibility of all participants. However, being recorded in a public place allows new users to skim a forum to locate topics of interest and engage immediately in an informational exchange. Most lists require an email address to place a post, providing a sometimes-used mechanism to take personal or inappropriate discussions ‘offline,’ or out of the public forum.

Instant Messaging & Chat Tools
For years the largest Internet Service Provider, America Online, operated under the belief that community drives usage, which in turns returns revenue in the form of both connect-time fees and advertising potential. AOL reported in 1997 that 40% of their total connect time was used for chat; members of this mega-community could use AOL tools to contact another user via email or send an ‘instant message’, upon which an instant text-based chat session could be invoked. These mechanisms proved simple to use and effective means to create microcommunities throughout the AOL system, although technological limitations limited use to AOL subscribers.

Chat products enable community members to interact realtime, dividing further from affinity-community pools into micro-community subgroups through real-time text-based chat. In a text-based chat environment, users’ messages are transmitted to a public or private virtual space in something that resembles real-life dialog. Some control tools for ‘operators’ (chat room docents who insure the tone of the room) allow censorship or banishment for offending room participants, but the majority of the tools are based not on technological tools but on organic community pressures exerted by the members themselves.

Products enabling chat on the WWW have been slow to develop because of the ‘stateless’ nature of the Web alluded to above. Two techniques have emerged to conduct real-time chat on the WWW without the need for a proprietary network as in the AOL case.

Using complicated CGI (Common Gateway Interface) mechanisms, discussions can actually be conducted dynamically on a web page, though performance is poor and the resulting community members must be very dedicated for the effort to succeed. Few CGI-based chat products are popular on the WWW, except on sexually-oriented sites.

Using still-primitive Java tools, a chat ‘window’ similar to the AOL or IRC model (see below) can be created. A number of products have entered this space, including Ichat and Parachat. Moving far beyond the CGI-controlled chat environments, Java-chat components will soon allow for multicasting or ‘conferencing’ allowing one or more ‘hosts’ to conduct teaching, interviews, and forums to a much wider audience. Current connectivity is limited technologically by number of simultaneous connections; small machines can only support 1-200 connections; in order to conduct such conferencing using current technologies, immensely expensive server production environments must be maintained; these environments are still out of range for all but a few resource-rich corporations.

‘ICQ’, a new desktop application, allows members to ‘page’  one another and create an instant chat window. Such ‘ICQ’ addresses are very popular today, although security risks present in the software will either force refinements or open the door for competing products. The future will see more products, possibly worked into future iterations of the Windows operating system.

Outside the web but still on the Internet, IRC (Internet Relay Chat) provides ‘chat’ services for tens of thousands of users. Tools for IRC have developed organically from the early Net ‘early adopter’ community, but the continued difficulty in identifying which network (there are three major ones and host of minor ones), in locating a community member and the rapid progress in Java-based chat products insures the eventual replacement of IRC with web components.

Organic Policing Tools & Essential Anonymity
Particularly  with topical affinity communities, the ‘vocal expert syndrome’ often damages affinity-communities as few tools exist to assist with this difficulty by validating the identity of a community member. Identification of children or a self-declared expert’s bona fides would become easier with some kind of authentication registry, but the nature of the Internet community as a whole is resistant to such registration. Organic responses to harassment--real or imagined--have been developed by the communities for policing purposes, ranging from simple ostracization to technological banishment. Over time a persona’s underlying character usually becomes apparent even as they shift surface identities, making policing easier for long-time residents of such a group.

In many respects the organic tools derived by passionate affinity-group members are the most interesting developments, but there is insufficient space here to explore these tools in detail. Hopefully this will provide a rich topic for more research.

Future Tools
Avatars & Graphics
The inclusion of graphics, plot-control, and instant-messaging techniques represent the direction of next-generation community tools. Products such as Fujitsu’s WorldsAway (the product I work on), Electric Community’s Palace, and Microsoft’s V-Chat are all attempting to enhance the ability to project identity through avatar-based products. Avatars are, in a nutshell, graphical representations of a user that can be manipulated to some degree to increase the expressiveness of simple text-based chat. Additionally, since Avatars interact in a setting of some kind, graphics tools yield rich possibilities for the enhancement of ‘place’ through graphical rooms, regions or even whole new worlds. Imagine a ‘Camelot’ world where everyone had the appearance of a knight or lady. Such technologies are currently being tested for market acceptance, and may represent a future direction for online community tools.

Plot-Control tools will be used in conjunction with graphical representations of ‘avatars’ to allow entertainment oriented sites to use the new technologies to extend the capabilities of role-playing games. Current text-based role-playing games have already demolished the older paper/imagination based games such as Dungeons & Dragons, and as these tools are extended to a less-expert class of users through skillfully designed interfaces and compelling graphics, more communities will form around fantasy elements, including ‘generic’ fantasy sci/fi and the more mainstream entertainment products such as Star Trek and Babylon-5.

The other set of enhancements will be used for desktop paging, as in the ICQ case. When users can contact one another, hold online conferences capable of moderation, the online communications channel will have truly come into its own, paving the way for exponential expansion of electronically-based microcommunities.

The Net and Tournament Companies
As a communications tool, the Internet has enabled the Company of Saint George to extend its audience far beyond the locality where it is physically active, and to link individuals to the Company or to other Societies, building a networked microcommunity around the confraternal concept.

Providing Information
It is the information-dissemination component of the website that has been the most successful in distributing our concepts of contemporary chivalry. Through essays, articles, published debates and even some fiction, the ideas of key tournament company visionaries have found their way to many parts of the globe.

Today there are more than fifteen tournament companies, only eleven of which are attached to the Society for Creative Anachronism. There are doubtless others that have been founded but have not ‘checked in’ with the KCT site; I found four last year alone. Each of them had been founded based on the Web material, but they had been too bashful to inquire directly, since they felt their own efforts might prove embarrassing to the more ‘expert’ members of the tournament society community.

Building Renown
As a communications medium extending well beyond the Tournament Company affinity community, the Internet is perfectly suited for the knightly concept of renown, the aggregate opinion of those who witness or hear tell of an individuals deeds.

Using ‘books of fine deeds’, web-forums, email lists, and roundtable chat discussions word of a gentle’s virtue or denegration can be transmitted to thousands of community members instantly. Adding those whose membership in the microcommunity is only tangential, many more thousands can be reached. The result is a far more instantaneous result for good or poor conduct, an individuals renown adjusted accordingly. The Internet acts as a multiplier for renown earned on the field or through deeds of courtesy, although there is also certainly the potential for abuse and purposeful smearing.

Books, journals and selected craftworks are sold through the website both to finance its maintenance and planned expansion (we are building a children’s site and a guide for teaching chivalry aimed at teachers). For works that are published from a small, undistributed set of publishing houses, there is a chance that such direct marketing avenues may reduce the impact of increasing centralization within the publishing industry, maintaining an desperately needed sales channel for small publishers.

Real-time and delayed-signal communications tools such as email lists and java-based chat has enabled the Company to directly interact with individuals as far away as Sweden, Australia, and South Africa, bringing everyone together into a forum where the chivalric ideas of Ramon Lull, Geoffrey Charny and other chivalric thinkers are re-examined and considered. Ideas are transmitted to a wider audience using these tools, and although they are currently primitive, the potential for even greater expansion has been clearly demonstrated.

Community in the Future
Although time does not permit an in-depth probe into what these electronic communities will become, it is likely that more and more often individuals will consider themselves members of at least one affinity-community whose primary connections are those established through electronic media. Merging this capability with the capacity of entertainment giants to provide compelling alternative electronic worlds, more and more individuals will invest a portion of their identity in the emerging medium. What this means for traditional ideas of community, law and government remain to be seen; but the outcome may well change the way we as human beings interact.

The Internet, even in its infant form, has allowed the affinity-community surrounding the 14th century ideal of a chivalric company to thrive and flourish. It is perhaps ironic that it has taken a renaissance of technology to unleash Ramon’s dream that knights would undertake a study of chivalry in order to receive the accolade. But I for one find a distinct pleasure in watching the ideals reawaken not merely in the context of history but as living tools adapting once more to a new era, but retaining their essential qualities such that a medieval knight attunded towards the ideals of his day would perhaps recognize the ‘spark’ of knighthood in someone today. Although the Net presents a host of challenges for both individual and society, it will continue to present the opportunity for greatness and for abuse as the gates are opened for literary ideas of all sorts to find new life.


 Works Cited

Barber, Richard and Juliet Barker. Tournaments. Wiedenfield & Nicholson, 1985.

Barker, Juliet R.V. The Tournament in England, 1100-1400. Boydell, 1986.

Boulton, D’Arcy J. The Knights of the Crown: The Monarchical Orders of Knighthood in Late Medieval Europe 1325-1520. St. Martins, 1987

Capellanus, Andreas. The Art of Courtly Love. Trans. John Jay Parry. Norton, 1941.

Cline, Ruth Huff. ‘The Influences of Romances on Tournaments of the Middle Ages’, Speculum XX, 1945.

Cox, Eugene L. The Green Count of Savoy. Princeton University Press, 1967

Cripps-Day, F.H. The Tournament in the France and England. London, 1918, Reprinted AMS Press, NY, 1982.

Eshenbach, Wolfram von. Parzival. Trans. Helen Mustard and Charles Passage. Vintage, 1961.

Girouard, Mark. The Return to Camelot: Chivalry and the English Gentleman. Yale University Press, 1981.

Huizinga, J. The Waning of the Middle Ages. London, 1927.

Keen, Maurice. Chivalry. Yale University Press, 1984

Kennedy, Elspeth. ‘The Knight as Reader of Arthurian Romance’, Culture and the King: The Social Implications of the Arthurian Legend, ed. Schictman & Carley, 1995.

& Richard Keauper. Geoffrey de Charny’s Livre Chevalerie. University of Pennsylvania Press, 1996.

Knighthood, Chivalry & Tournaments Resource Library.

Loomis, Roger Sherman. ‘Edward I, Arthurian Enthusiast’. Speculum, xxviii (1953), pp. 114-27.

Lull, Ramon. The Book of the Order of Chivalry, ed. by Alfred T. Byles, EETS #168.
The Book of the Ordre of Chyvalry or Knyghthode. Caxton version, 1494. Walter J. Johnson

Prestage, E. Chivalry. London, 1928

Price, Brian R. The Book of the Tournament. The Chivalry Bookshelf, 1991.
  Building Internet Communities. Unpublished manuscript, 1997-8.
  The Great Charter of the Company of Saint George
(modern English version).

Reingold, Howard. Virtual Communities.

Sandoz, E., ‘Tourneys in the Arthurian Tradition’, Speculum, xix (1944), pp. 389-420.

Scaglione, Aldo. Knights at Court: Courtliness, Chivalry & Courtesy. University of California Press, Berkeley, 1991.

Shichtman, Martin B. & James P. Carley, ed. Culture and the King: The Social Implications of the Arthur Legend. State University of New York Press, 1994.


Electronic Version January, 1998
The Chivalry Bookshelf
The Knighthood, Tournaments & Chivalry Resource Library